Outcome in terms of the impact that it has on an organization

Module 10: 1- Replay to Fahad: Outcome in terms of the impact that it has on an organization. COLLAPSE The Affordable Care Act, popularly known as Obamacare, is the healthcare policy that has had the greatest impact on patient outcomes. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed in 2010 with the purpose of increasing access to affordable health insurance and improving healthcare quality in the United States. • • • Short-term outcomes: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) increased Medicaid coverage and established health insurance exchanges, providing access to health insurance for millions of previously uninsured Americans. This resulted in a rise in the number of persons with health insurance, particularly among low-income groups. Intermediate outcomes: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) improved health plan quality by ensuring essential health benefits coverage and prohibited discrimination based on pre-existing conditions. This resulted in improved access to preventive interventions and lower financial barriers to care. long-term outcomes: The ACA aims to reduce chronic disease incidence, enhance population health, and cut healthcare costs by enhancing access to healthcare and preventive services throughout time. According to studies, the Affordable Care Act has reduced uninsured rates, improved self-reported health, and reduced financial obstacles to care. The ACA was a comprehensive policy intervention that addressed several parts of the healthcare system, therefore the changes in these outcomes may be clearly attributable to it. Attributing Outcomes to Policies While the ACA has clearly resulted in significant changes to the healthcare environment, it is crucial to highlight that the policy’s full impact is still being assessed. The ACA’s outcomes have been influenced by state-level implementation, changes in the political landscape, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness, the ACA has been found to be beneficial to both individual and society costs. Increased coverage and access to preventative services have resulted in lower uncompensated care costs and improved individual financial security. Furthermore, the ACA’s long-term health benefits are predicted to offset the early implementation costs, making it an affordable policy intervention. Overall, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has had a major and demonstrable influence on healthcare access, quality, and population health outcomes in the United States, illustrating the importance of successful healthcare policy in enhancing individual and community health. Reference: Health Policy – Healthy People 2030 | Health.gov. (n.d.). https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browseobjectives/health-policy Mozafaripour, S. (2022, March 22). Healthcare policy: What is it and why is it important? University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences. https://www.usa.edu/blog/healthcare-policy/ Oh, A., Abazeed, A., & Chambers, D. A. (2021). Policy Implementation Science to Advance Population Health: The Potential for Learning Health Policy Systems. Frontiers in Public Health, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.681602 2- Replay to Nedaa: Healthcare Associated Infections Policy: The Effect COLLAPSE In the context of organization level policymaking, it is important to consider the implementation of a healthcare policy aimed at reducing hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), which are a significant concern for healthcare organizations due to their impact on patient safety, treatment outcomes, and healthcare costs. Their impact is expected to range from short to long-term and could be tackled. Expected Outcomes Of This Policy Short-term outcomes include decreased incidence of HAIs, improved infection control practices such as hand hygiene and environmental sanitation, leading to a decrease in transmission of infectious agents within the facility, and increased awareness and education among staff and patients regarding the importance of infection prevention measures (Brisibe et al., 2015). Intermediate outcomes are represented but not limited to the following: (1) Reduction in healthcare costs: As the incidence of HAIs decreases, healthcare organizations should observe a decline in associated costs, such as extended hospital stays, additional treatments, and resources required for managing infections, (2) Enhanced patient satisfaction: Patients are likely to perceive healthcare facilities positively when they observe efforts to prevent infections, leading to increased satisfaction scores, (3) Improved reputation: Organizations that successfully implement infection control policies may experience enhanced reputation in the community and among competitions. Long-term outcomes may include: (1) Sustained reduction in HAIs: Over time, the policy should contribute to maintaining low levels of HAIs, resulting in improved overall patient safety and treatment outcomes, (2) Prevention of antimicrobial resistance: Long-term outcomes may include a reduction in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, as fewer infections necessitate antibiotic use, (3) Cost savings and resource allocation: Continued adherence to infection prevention policies can lead to long-term cost savings for healthcare organizations, allowing for better allocation of resources to other areas of need. Attribution Of Changes In Outcomes To The Policy Changes in outcomes can be attributed to the policy if there is a clear correlation between its implementation and the observed improvements. Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms should be in place to track the impact of the policy on infection rates, adherence to protocols, patient satisfaction, and associated costs. Comparative analysis with control groups or historical data can further validate the effectiveness of the policy in bringing about desired changes. Cost-Benefit Or Cost-Effectiveness Analysis The cost-effectiveness of the policy can be assessed by comparing the expenses incurred in implementing infection prevention measures with the cost savings resulting from reduced HAIs and associated treatments. While initial investments may be required for staff training, equipment, and infrastructure improvements, the long-term benefits of preventing infections and minimizing healthcare costs typically outweigh the initial expenditures, making the policy cost-effective in the broader context of patient safety and organizational sustainability. Brisibe, S., Ordinioha, B., & Gbeneolol, P. K. (2015). The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal/Nigerian Medical Journal, 56(3), 194. https://doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.160393 Module 11: 1- Replay to Eman: Human Rights Introduction One notable international human rights organization, other than Amnesty International, is Human Rights Watch (HRW). HRW is dedicated to defending and protecting human rights around the world. The organization focuses on research and advocacy to bring attention to human rights abuses and hold perpetrators accountable. (Human Rights Watch | Defending Human Rights Worldwide, n.d.) Mission of HRW: The mission of Human Rights Watch is to investigate and report on abuses happening in all corners of the world. They focus on bringing the facts to light, applying pressure on those in power to respect rights, and ensuring justice for victims. (Human Rights Watch | Defending Human Rights Worldwide, n.d.) Partnerships: HRW partners with governments, NGOs, and international organizations to influence policy changes and laws. They work closely with local activists to monitor human rights conditions and collaborate with other groups to advocate for the protection and promotion of human rights (Careers, 2023). Challenges: HRW faces several challenges in addressing human rights violations internationally, including: -Political Resistance: Some governments may be resistant to HRW’s findings and recommendations, making it difficult to implement changes. -Resource Constraints: The scope of human rights abuses worldwide can strain the organization’s resources, impacting their ability to respond effectively. -Safety Risks: HRW staff and partners often work in volatile environments, which can pose significant safety risks. (Human Rights Achievements and Challenges in a Rapidly Changing World, 2023) In conclusion, international human rights organizations like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch play a crucial role in promoting and protecting human rights globally. They work tirelessly to investigate human rights abuses, advocate for change, and hold perpetrators accountable. Despite facing challenges such as political resistance, resource constraints, and safety risks, these organizations strive to ensure that all individuals can live with dignity and have their rights respected. Their efforts are a testament to the enduring importance of human rights in our global society. (Engström, 2017) References Careers, H. R. (2023, October 21). 25 international human rights organizations. Human Rights Careers. https://www.humanrightscareers.com/magazine/international-humanrights-organizations/ Engström, P. (2017). Human Rights: effectiveness of international and regional mechanisms. In Oxford University Press eBooks. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.214 Human rights achievements and challenges in a rapidly changing world. (2023, April 17). United Nation Human Right. https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2013/04/human-rights-achievementsand-challenges-rapidly-changing-world Human Rights Watch | Defending human rights worldwide. (n.d.). https://www.hrw.org/ 2- Replay to Maram: m11 International human rights organization that focuses on curbing or stopping human rights violations is the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Let’s address the requirements for your assignment using the ICRC as an example: Mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): The ICRC’s mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence and to provide them with assistance. It works to ensure respect for international humanitarian law and promotes humanitarian principles globally. The ICRC operates independently and neutrally, with a mandate to visit detainees, provide medical care, reunite families separated by conflict, and engage in dialogue with armed groups and governments to address humanitarian concerns (ICRC,2023). Partnerships with Other Organizations: The ICRC collaborates extensively with various governmental and non-governmental organizations to protect human rights in conflict zones and other humanitarian crises. It works closely with national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, which are often among the first responders during emergencies. The ICRC also partners with United Nations agencies, other humanitarian organizations, and local NGOs to coordinate humanitarian responses, share information, and advocate for the protection of civilians and respect for international humanitarian law (Vara, 2019). Challenges Faced by the ICRC: While the ICRC plays a vital role in mitigating human rights violations during armed conflicts and humanitarian crises, it encounters several challenges: – Access to Affected Areas: In conflict zones, access to affected populations can be restricted due to security concerns, logistical challenges, or government obstruction. This limits the ICRC’s ability to provide assistance and monitor human rights conditions effectively. – Neutrality and Perceptions: Maintaining neutrality and impartiality is crucial for the ICRC’s operations. However, in some contexts, parties to the conflict may perceive the ICRC as biased or may not respect its humanitarian mandate, leading to risks for ICRC staff and challenges in delivering aid. – Funding and Resources: Like many humanitarian organizations, the ICRC relies on donations and funding to sustain its operations. Adequate resources are necessary to scale up responses, address emerging crises, and maintain a presence in complex environments. – Complexity of Conflict Dynamics: Understanding and navigating the complex dynamics of armed conflicts, including multiple actors, shifting alliances, and asymmetric warfare, requires nuanced strategies and engagement approaches. The ICRC must adapt its interventions to diverse contexts while upholding its humanitarian principles. Despite these challenges, the ICRC’s longstanding commitment to humanitarian action and its partnerships with diverse stakeholders contribute significantly to protecting human rights and alleviating suffering in crisis-affected populations globally (ICRC,2023). References: International Committee of the Red Cross. (2023). Annual Report 2022. ICRC. Vara, J. S. (2019). The Role of International Organizations in Promoting Human Rights. International Journal of Human Rights, 23(6),

Outcome in terms of the impact that it has on an organization

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