Cost Accounting ACCT301 Saudi Elctronic University Presentation

Cost Management Measuring, Monitoring, and Motivating Performance Chapter 8 Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 1 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Learning objectives • • • • • • • Q1: What are support departments, and why are their costs allocated to other departments? Q2: What process is used to allocate support department costs? Q3: How is the direct method used to allocate support costs to operating departments? Q4: How is the step-down method used to allocate support costs to operating departments? Q5: How is the reciprocal method used to allocate support costs to operating departments? Q6: What is the difference between single- and dual-rate allocations? Q7: How do support cost allocations affect decisions and managerial incentives? © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 2 Q1: Support versus Operating Departments • The operating departments of an organization produce products or services that generate revenue. • The support departments of an organization produce products or provide services to the operating and other support departments. • The support department costs are common costs that are shared between two or more other departments. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 3 Q1: Reasons for Allocating Support Department Costs • External reporting • Motivation • appropriate consumption of support department resources • efficiency of support department • monitor consumption of support department services • Decision making • product pricing • make or buy decisions © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 4 Q1: Support Department Allocation Process © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 5 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 1. Clarify allocation purpose 2. Identify cost pools 3. Assign costs to cost pools 4. Choose allocation bases for each cost pool 5. Choose allocation method; allocate support department costs 6. Allocate updated operating department costs to units of goods or services, if relevant © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 6 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 1. Clarify allocation purpose • if the purpose is to motivate the use of the services of a newly formed department, perhaps no costs should be allocated • if the purpose is to discourage operating department managers from over-use of the services of support departments, then a rate per unit of service might be large and not based on actual costs • if the purpose is to determine the full cost of products or services for long-term pricing decisions, then all support costs should be allocated © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 7 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 2. Identify cost pools • the purpose will determine whether both fixed and variable support department costs should be allocated • the purpose will determine which costs should be allocated © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 8 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 3. Assign costs to cost pools • some costs will be direct to the cost pool (e.g. toner cartridge costs would be direct to the “variable copying costs” cost pool) • some costs will be indirect to the cost pool (e.g. rent costs for an entire facility would be indirect to the “information technology costs” cost pool) © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 9 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 4. Choose allocation bases for each cost pool • an allocation base with a good cause-andeffect relationship with the cost pool provides a reasonable allocation rate • users of support department services will carefully monitor their consumption of the allocation base © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 10 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 5. Choose allocation method and allocate support department costs • in this chapter we cover three allocation methods • each of these three methods could be implemented using • a single- or dual-rate approach (covered later) • actual or budgeted costs and allocation bases (covered later) © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 11 Q2: Process for Allocating Support Department Costs 6. Allocate updated operating department costs to units of goods or services, if relevant • for some decisions, this may not be relevant • for long-term pricing decisions, this is likely to be relevant © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 12 Q3: The Direct Method of Allocating Support Department Costs • The direct method ignores the fact that support departments use each others’ services. • Each support department’s costs are allocated only to operating departments. • This method is the easiest computationally and the easiest to explain. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 13 Q3: The Direct Method Example Philco Toys makes metal and plastic toys in separate departments. It has two support departments, Accounting and Information Systems. Philco has decided to allocate Accounting department costs based on the number of employees in each department and Information Systems costs based on the number of computers in each department. Given the information below, use the direct method to allocate support department costs. Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting (48,000) Information Systems Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 $0 27,789 20,211 $0 (72,000) 36,000 36,000 $0 $0 $449,789 $238,211 $688,000 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 14 Q3: The Direct Method Example Plastic Products is allocated Plastic and Metal Product share 22/(22+16) of Accounting Info Systems costs equally department costs, and Metal because they have the same Products is allocated number of computers in each 16/(22+16). Notice that the department. Notice that the number of employees in the number of computers in the support departments is ignored departments is ignored Support Dep’ts support Operating Departments under the direct method. under the direct method. Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting (48,000) Information Systems Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 $0 27,789 20,211 $0 (72,000) 36,000 36,000 $0 $0 $449,789 $238,211 $688,000 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 15 Q4: The Step-Down Method of Allocating Support Department Costs • The step-down method allocates some (but not all) support department costs to other support departments. • The first support department’s costs are allocated to all operating and support departments that use its services. • Each subsequent support department’s costs are allocated to all operating and support departments that use its services, except any support department whose costs were already allocated. • Allocation order must be determined. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 16 Q4: The Step-Down Method Example Given the information for Philco, use the step-down method to allocate support department costs. Allocate the costs of the support department that provides the largest percentage of its services to the other support department first. First determine allocation order: Accounting provided 4/(4+22+16) = 4/42 = 9.5% of its services to Info Systems. Information Systems provided 4/(4+3+3) = 4/10 = 40% of its services to Accounting, so Information Systems goes first. Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 17 Q4: The Step-Down Method Example Given the information for Philco, use the step-down method to allocate support department costs. Now perform the allocation: Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Operating Departments Metal Plastic Info AccTotal Products ounting Systems Products $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 45 16 22 4 3 16 3 3 6 4 Allocate costs: Accounting (76,800) (48,000) Information Systems 28,800 $0 Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 44,463 27,789 32,337 20,211 $0 $0 (72,000) 21,600 21,600 21,600 $0 $0 $0 $435,389 $452,063 $223,811 $235,937 $659,200 $688,000 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 18 Q4: The Step-Down Method Example Info Systems costs are allocated to Accounting, Plastic, & Metal based on each department’s number of computers compared to total non-Info Systems Support Dep’ts computers: 4+3+3=10. Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Accounting costs are allocated only to Plastic & Metal based on each department’s number of employees compared to total non-Accounting and non-Info Operatingemployees: Departments Systems 22+16=38 AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting (76,800) Information Systems 28,800 $0 Totals 44,463 32,337 $0 (72,000) 21,600 21,600 $0 $0 $452,063 $235,937 $688,000 Total costs allocated out of Accounting are now higher because of the Info Systems costs allocated to Accounting. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 19 Q4: The Step-Down Method Example (22/38) x $76,800 (4/10) x $72,000 (16/38) x $76,800 (3/10) x $72,000 Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers (3/10) x $72,000 Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting (76,800) Information Systems 28,800 $0 Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 44,463 32,337 $0 (72,000) 21,600 21,600 $0 $0 $452,063 $235,937 $688,000 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 20 Q5: The Reciprocal Method of Allocating Support Department Costs • The reciprocal method allocates all support department costs to other support departments. • The first step is to compute the total costs of each support department when its usage of other support department services is taken into consideration. • Support department costs are then allocated to all other operating and support departments that consume its services. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 21 Q5: The Reciprocal Method Example Given the information for Philco, use the reciprocal method to allocate support department costs. First determine total costs for each support department by writing an equation for its costs (use A and IS as abbreviations). A = $48,000 + [4/(4+3+3)] x IS; IS = $72,000 + [4/(4+22+16)] x A Then solve: A = $48,000 + (4/10) x [$72,000 + (4/42) x A] A = $48,000 + $28,800 + (16/420) x A] (404/420) x A = $76,800 A = $76,800 x (420/404) = $79,842 IS = $72,000 + (4/42) x $79,842 = $79,604 Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 22 Q5: The Reciprocal Method Example Given the information for Philco, use the reciprocal method to allocate support department costs. Now perform the allocation: Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting Information Systems Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 31,842 (79,604) (79,604) 23,881 31,842 23,881 $0 $0 $451,703 $451,703 $0 $0 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e 30,416 30,416 23,881 23,881 $0 $0 $236,297 $236,297 $688,000 Slide # 23 Q5: The Reciprocal Method Example These numbers are the solutions to the simultaneous equations. (4/42) x $79,842 (22/42) x $79,842 (16/42) x $79,842 Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting Information Systems Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 31,842 (79,604) (79,604) 23,881 31,842 23,881 $0 $0 $451,703 $451,703 $0 $0 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e 30,416 30,416 23,881 23,881 $0 $0 $236,297 $236,297 $688,000 Slide # 24 Q5: The Reciprocal Method Example (4/10) x $79,604 (3/10) x $79,604 (3/10) x $79,604 Support Dep’ts Total department costs Number of employees Number of computers Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products Total $48,000 $72,000 $386,000 $182,000 $688,000 3 4 22 16 45 4 6 3 3 16 Allocate costs: Accounting Information Systems Totals © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 (79,842) 7,604 41,822 31,842 (79,604) (79,604) 23,881 31,842 23,881 $0 $0 $451,703 $451,703 $0 $0 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e 30,416 30,416 23,881 23,881 $0 $0 $236,297 $236,297 $688,000 Slide # 25 Q6: Single- versus Dual-Rate Allocation • In single-rate allocation, each cost pool includes fixed and variable costs. • In dual-rate allocation, fixed and variable costs are in separate cost pools. • Both methods can be employed with the direct, step-down, or reciprocal methods. • The prior three examples used the singlerate allocation method. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 26 Q6: Single- versus Dual-Rate Example Philco has decided to use the direct method and allocate variable Accounting costs based on the number of transactions and fixed Accounting costs based on the number of employees. The Info Systems variable costs will be allocated based on the number of service requests and fixed costs will be allocated based on the number of computers. The required information is presented below. Support Dep’ts Total department variable costs Total department fixed costs Number of transactions Number of employees Number of service requests Number of computers Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products $20,000 $22,000 $186,000 $100,000 $28,000 $50,000 $200,000 $82,000 20 32 140 86 3 4 22 16 18 5 12 8 4 6 3 3 Now perform the allocation… © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 27 Q6: Single- versus Dual-Rate Example Total department variable costs Total department fixed costs Number of transactions Number of employees Number of service requests Number of computers Support Dep’ts Operating Departments AccInfo Plastic Metal ounting Systems Products Products $20,000 $22,000 $186,000 $100,000 $28,000 $50,000 $200,000 $82,000 20 32 140 86 3 4 22 16 18 5 12 8 4 6 3 3 Allocate variable costs: Accounting (20,000) 12,389 7,611 (22,000) 13,200 8,800 $0 $211,589 $116,411 $0 (50,000) $0 16,211 25,000 $241,211 11,789 25,000 $118,789 $0 $0 $452,800 $235,200 Information Systems Total variable costs Allocate fixed costs: Accounting Information Systems Total fixed costs Total fixed and variable costs © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 $0 (28,000) Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 28 Q7: Decision Making with Support Costs • Support costs need to be considered when evaluating decisions such as make/buy, keep/drop, special order, and constrained resource • Necessary to isolate relevant support costs – This may not be the same as the allocated support costs – For example, outsourcing an operating department may not result in a reduction in support department costs © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 29 Q7: Establishing Transfer Prices for Support Departments • Transfer prices should be set to motivate efficient use of the support department resources – If transfer price is set too high, user departments may outsource the service – If transfer price is set too low, user departments may utilize the support department inefficiently • The best transfer pricing approach is the Opportunity Cost approach – Each department is charged an amount that reflects the value of any opportunities forgone by not using the service for its next best alternative use. – This is often difficult in practice so most companies use a cost based or market based transfer pricing policy © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 30 Q7: Estimated versus Actual Support Costs and Rates A department’s allocation of support department costs = the allocation rate x the department’s consumption of the allocation base Either of these could be estimated or actual. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 31 Q7: Estimated versus Actual Support Costs and Rates the allocation rate x the department’s consumption of the allocation base Using actual rates and actual consumption provides the best measure of the cost of support services; it is the most accurate but the least timely. The purpose of the cost allocation will determine whether actual or estimated rates, and actual or estimated consumption, should be used. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 32 Q7: Estimated versus Actual Support Costs and Rates • Actual rates and consumption may be required for some types of government contracts. • Most federal grants to educational institutions allow the use of estimates. • Using an actual rate means that support service users are affected by • inefficiencies of support department managers • changes in the consumption of support services by other users © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 33 Q7: Other Common Cost Allocation Methods • Other cost allocation purposes may require the allocation to • be perceived as “fair” • be based on the user’s “ability to bear” the cost • Under the stand-alone method, a common cost is allocated based on information about the users’ consumption of the cost. • Under the incremental cost allocation method, a “primary user” is allocated the bulk of the common cost and the secondary user is allocated only the increment in cost that it caused. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 34 Q7: Stand-Alone versus Incremental Cost Allocation Methods Example Leslie has a job interview with Big Co. next month in New York City. Her plane ticket cost $300, and she will need to spend $125/night for 2 nights in a hotel. She estimates that she will spend $50 in cab fares and $50 for food. Big Co. has promised to reimburse her actual costs. After this trip was arranged, Small Co., also located in New York City, called her for an interview. If she interviews with Small Co. while she’s there, she will spend an additional $125 for another night at a hotel, and another estimated $40 in cab fares and food. Think of at least two ways to allocate Leslie’s travel costs using the stand-alone method. Discuss the merits of each. 1. Compute the total cost of the trip and divide it by 2, since there are 2 interviews. 2. Compute the total cost of the trip and allocate 2/3 of it to Big Co. and 1/3 to Small Co. since she is spending 2 of the 3 nights in NYC for the Big Co. interview. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 35 Q7: Stand-Alone versus Incremental Cost Allocation Methods Example Perform the calculations for your two versions of the cost allocation under the stand-alone method. Then allocate the travel costs using the incremental cost allocation method. Which is more appropriate? Why? Estimated total costs: Plane ticket Hotel Cab fares & food Total If shared equally, then this is $300 $407.50 for each company; if 375 Big Co. is allocated 2/3 of the 140 cost then $543.33 is allocated $815 to Big Co. and $271.67 is allocated to Small Co. Under the incremental cost allocation method, Big Co. is most likely to be considered the primary user. Since Leslie’s budgeted travel costs were $300 + $250 + $50 + $50 = $650 before she was offered the Small Co. interview, Big Co. is allocated $650 and Small Co. is allocated $815 – $650 = $165. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 36 Q7: Fixed Price versus Cost-Based Contracts • Under fixed price contracts, vendors provide products or services for a specified price. • Under cost-based contracts, the price is computed based on the actual cost of the products or services. • may be necessary for research & new product development • vendors are not motivated to control costs • vendors may be motivated to inappropriately allocate common costs © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 37 Appendix 8A: Excel Solver and the Reciprocal Method • Solving the simultaneous equations required for the reciprocal method can be tedious when there are 3 or more support departments. • Excel Solver can be used to solve these equations. • Refer to Appendix 4A for help with using Excel Solver. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 38 Appendix 8A: Excel Solver and the Reciprocal Method • Set up a “change cell” for each support department’s total costs. • The target function is the sum of the change cells. • The simultaneous equations are entered as constraints; one constraint per equation. © John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Chapter 8: Measuring and Assigning Support Department Costs Eldenburg & Wolcott’s Cost Management, 2e Slide # 39

Cost Accounting ACCT301 Saudi Elctronic University Presentation

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